Kolumneya: 23 species with photos and descriptions
Rainforests are famous for their extraordinary flora. Many of its representatives successfully settled our windowsills.
However, the columna occupied another niche: she prefers hanging planters, turning them into tree trunks, from which long green lashes hang.
The flower, amazing in beauty, is unpretentious in leaving and differs in a variety of types.
Types of columna with photos and names
Considering the flower of the columna, photo and description, you can clearly see its unique beauty. Given that this plant has many species, we will constantly be surprised at their exotic appearance. Among them many ampelous speciesbut there are those that look like bushes.
A cascade of long stems covered with dense foliage and many bright yellow flowers of a fanciful shape are all decorative charms of the Carnival look.
Columnaea carnival is resistant to slightly dry air, it always has plentiful and long flowering.
In this species, the columnae have erect stems, covered with lignified bark. The color of the leaves attracts attention: a dark green plate, the tip of which shines in scarlet. The flowers are small, yellow, after flowering give lavender berries.
This variety is characterized by large leaves arranged in the form of a fan. These leaves are very similar to green bird feathers, decorated with red tips. The flowers are yellow, located at the base of the leaves.
Columnia pupureovittata have unusual leaves. Large (up to 15 cm) dark green foliage is not smooth, but pubescent and wrinkled. Flower petals can be painted in yellow or dark burgundy tones.
A distinctive feature of Allen's Kolumna is the length of the stems, which reaches several meters. Over the entire length they are strewn with small, up to 2 cm, leaflets. Red flower petals are elongated and pointed at the ends.
It is no coincidence that this variety was named after the volcano, because its stems rise above the roots, and the krumata krakatau resembles an eruption of lava.
The leaves are not wide, but long, with a smooth surface and a pleasant green color. Since the column is hybrid, its flowers are colored in various shades of red, identical in size to the leaves.
Compact columnai variety with thick green leaves, pubescent with small pile. The central vein of the upper leaf plate is drawn into the leaf. Small orange flowers are located under the leaves.
A view with straight stems and large leaves, in which veins are clearly visible. The petals are yellow-orange; the corollas themselves are small and hide under foliage.
Hirsut leaves are covered with hard hairs. The flowers are large (up to 5 cm), star-shaped, petals yellow with red.
A semi-shrubby appearance with straight half-meter stems. Leaves are long (up to 12 cm), with a glossy surface. Pink shades prevail in the flowers, the petals are covered with a white edge.
It differs from its “girlfriends” in the family by the tubular shape of the flowers and their purple tone, which is similar to the color of the lower leaf plate.
The small-leafed column has long drooping stems with small leaves (up to 1 cm). The surface of the leaves is covered with red villi. The color scheme of the petals is red with orange stripes.
Sharp, or Argut
The acute columnae, whose photo you see, has long stems (up to 1.5 m) with a thick edge. Leaves are pointed, small, glossy. Arguta has large flowers located in the axils of the leaves.
Arguta colors range from red to orange. Yellow dots or spots are clearly visible on their petals.
Raymond is a bushy species with erect stems. The leaves are long, dark marsh. Red flowers have yellow pharynx.
Ampelic appearance with small velvety leaves and red-yellow large flowers. Flower petals are much longer than the leaves of the plant.
The stalks of the plate colum are straight. With age, gaining weight, they drop.
The leaves are smooth, green in color, extend up to 10 cm in length. Coral flowers have a red edge, reach the same size as the leaves.
It boasts a variegated color of leaves with a green core and white patterns at the edges. Classically shaped flowers shine red.
Columnae red is the most exotic species. She has thick stems that grow up and are collected in a shrub. The leaves are oval, large, arranged in order. Light green leaves are diluted with burgundy spots without a specific shape. Flowers are pubescent, bright scarlet.
Glorious, or Gloriosa
At Gloriosa, the stems are long and thick, spread along the ground. Leaves can be green or red-brown, oval-rounded. Carmine red flowers are decorated with yellow spots located at the base of the tube.
Banksy shoots are lignified, long (up to 1 meter). Leaves are arranged in pairs, lanceolate. The surface is smooth, painted in rich green tones. The flowers are large (up to 5 cm), orange-red color scheme.
The sheumn of Kolumnia surprises with its leaves, which are pubescent with white villi on the outside and red with fluff on the bottom. Corollas are large, yellow with large burgundy spots. Columnae Schiedeana came to Europe from the rainforests of Mexico.
The stalks of columna chids are like long creepers, strewn with red villi. The leaves of the plant also have red pubescence, their shape is lanceolate, up to 10 cm long. The flowers are yellow.
The species is native to South America and belongs to shrubs. The stem does not branch out, it reaches a height of 1.5 m. A distinctive feature of the consanguines is the location and size of the leaves.
In a pair of leaves, one is much smaller than the other, which looks like an alternate arrangement, but in fact they grow along the stem. The flowers have pale yellow petals and a green cup.
In addition to the described species, mention should be made of two interesting varieties: Lava flow and Early bird. They have very beautiful, bright orange and red flowers.
Columnae does not have any special requirements, but some subtleties of care must be observed.
Attention! Columnae retains its decorative qualities for 6 years, then the flowering decreases, it becomes not so plentiful, the flowers grow smaller.
The plant prefers a range of 23 ... 27 ° C. Does not cause her discomfort and a short-term increase to +30 ° C.
Closer to mid-autumn they are accustomed to columbia to lower the temperature, leaving it on the balcony during the day, and cleaning the room at night.
Important! In the winter, it is advisable to keep the plaque until the beginning of spring in a room with a temperature of 16 ... 17 ° C.
In the rainforests of South America, a columnae lives on high tree branches where there is enough light for it. At home, the flower needs to be placed on the southeast and southwest windows.
Varieties in which the leaves are glossy need to be shaded, and other types of plants prefer diffuse lighting.
If you place the flower on the north window, it will grow and cease to bloom due to lack of light.
Humidity of 50-60% has a beneficial effect on plant development: gas exchange processes in leaves improve, nutrition is enhanced.
Varieties with smooth leaves It is recommended to spray and flush dust. For pubescent types of showers and spraying are not suitable, next to them you can put water containers in order to maintain the necessary humidity.
There are no great difficulties in caring for a kolumna, she is not fastidious and responds well to the simplest but correct actions.
Watering the flower needs to be balanced so that the soil feels moist, but there is no stagnation of water. Water must be defended in an open container for at least 24 hours at room temperature. By winter, watering is reduced to 1 time per week.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
They feed a columna in early spring with a frequency of 1 time in 2 weeks. For top dressing, take solutions of such agents as Kemira Lux or Fertika.
The concentration of fertilizer in the solution should be 2 times less than indicated in the instructions. With an excess of nutrients, the plant grows leaves and stems, but does not bloom. In winter, top dressing does not stop, but make it less common, about 1 time per month.
The transplant is carried out a month before the growing season and a month after flowering. The new tank should be 3-5 cm larger than the old one. The bottom of the pot is covered with a layer of drainage. As a finished soil, you can use soil for senpoliabut add slices of bark to it.
Kolumney loves loose soil. During the transplant, it is recommended to pinch the tops of the stems to cause the growth of lateral shoots and form a beautiful view.
Important! To rejuvenate the columna, pruning should be done to reduce the bushiness of the flower and make it neat.
How to propagate columna?
Two methods are suitable for plant propagation: cuttings and seeds.
Cuttings are taken from an adult plant in early March. The procedure itself is carried out as follows:
- Pieces of 10 cm long with 5-6 leaves are cut from the tops of the stems.
- The wounds from the slices are sprinkled with charcoal powder.
- A mixture of peat and sand is prepared, cuttings are planted in it. The ends are deepened by 1.5 cm. The soil is mulched, the seedlings are watered.
- Expose to a place where you can maintain a temperature of 24 ° C. They cover it with a film, after making holes in it for the exit of condensate. Periodically open and watered.
- When new leaves appear on the cuttings, they can be transferred to other pots.
For home breeding seeds are not used. They sprout poorly, sprouts turn out weak and quickly perish. The process itself takes a lot of time. First you need to withstand seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate, then planted in moist soil, scattering on the surface of the soil.
Sprinkled with a soil mixture, the seeds are covered with a film or glass, periodically watering and aerating. Sprouts should appear after 3 weeks.
Is a fuller support needed?
Since most plant species are ampelous, they do not need support, all their decorativeness is concentrated precisely in the long sagging lashes of stems.
What to do if the columna does not bloom?
For beginners, the question often arises why a column does not bloom.
Experts recommend the following:
- Observe the temperature during rest. Night temperature at 12 ° С should be maintained for a month. Daytime should not exceed 17 ° C.
- If the columna has grown greatly, she does not have enough strength for flowering. It is necessary to transplant the plant into a new pot, after taking the cuttings and pruning the crown.
- If these measures do not help, look for the cause of the flower disease.
Pests and diseases
|Disease or pest||Signs of defeat||Disposal methods|
|Gray rot||A gray fluff in the form of mold appears on parts of the plant.||Remove the affected areas, treat with "Fundazole" or "Topsin." Reduce watering and often ventilate the room where the plant stands.|
|Spider mite||Yellow spots on the flower, cobwebs, falling leaves.||Collect pests with a damp cloth. Treat the flower with Actellicum 2 times with an interval of 1 week.|
|Whitefly||White midges appear that settle on the back of the leaf.||Treatment with insecticides (Actellik, Akarin, Fitoverm).|