Indoor Hot Peppers: Home-grown
Hot pepper is a perennial plant in the nightshade family. With proper care, it is able to bear fruit for five, and in some cases up to ten years. For indoor breeding, varieties with a bush of moderate size - about 30 cm - and small, but numerous fruits of a conical, round or elongated shape are intended. This is a photophilous and thermophilic plant, sensitive to the microclimate.
The crown color of decorative hot peppers can be green or purple, and in fruits it changes as it ripens, from white or green to dark red. Unripe peppercorns can be yellow, orange, purple. Non-simultaneous ripening makes the plant even more elegant and colorful. The taste of ripened hot peppers grown in a pot is extremely burning.
Characteristics of hot pepper varieties
- Hot peppers are rich in various valuable substances, which explains their many beneficial properties:
- green pods contain 3 times more vitamin C than citrus fruits, and in red this indicator is 4–5 times higher;
- alkaloid capsaicin (contained only in spicy varieties) gives the vegetable burning properties, it is used in medicine as an irritant, to fill gas cans, as an insecticidal substance to combat various pests;
- enzymes contained in fruits positively affect the digestive tract;
- when consuming an acute vegetable, the amount of cholesterol decreases, blood circulation improves, and inflammatory processes pass;
- fruits relieve excess weight;
- useful properties are used in cosmetology (for example, for hair growth);
- the main industry of the vegetable is cooking: it is a part of adjika, spicy marinades, hot sauces of tabasco and chili, as well as the popular Indian curry.
Did you know?Some types of canaries are specially fed with cayenne pepper, so that the wings of birds become more intense.
Hot features of hot pepper
Bitter pepper belongs to heat-loving plants from the solanaceous family with branched stems, medium-sized light flowers and glossy fruits. The culture is compact and active bearing fruit. All varieties of hot pepper can be divided into decorative and standard. For cultivation at home, it is preferable to choose decorative varieties that differ in the small height of the bush (from 15 to 50 cm).
By ripening period, hot pepper happens:
- early ripe, with readiness on the 65-100th day after germination;
- mid-ripening, the ripening of which occurs in 100-120 days;
- late, pleasing harvest after 120-150 days.
In Europe, pots with decorative pepper for Christmas are put on the balcony, window sill, near the house
When choosing a variety for growing a house, you should pay attention to the following features:
- the shape of the fruit. In this regard, the culture is very diverse: the pods can have a conical, rounded, flattened shape, resemble a pyramid, a cylinder and even a bell;
- fruit color. It can be different - from bright yellow to purple;
- foliage coloring. The leaf plate is most often green, but you can find varieties with multi-colored blotches in the form of spots and stripes, as well as with purple leaves;
- the degree of burning fruit. The taste of hot pepper varies from piquant with a weak degree of bitterness to hot burning.
The edible fruits of hot pepper vary not only in size and color, but also in shape: alone, like Christmas toys, round; others hang down with bells; others rush up like candles
Features of growing hot pepper in an apartment on the windowsill
Growing pepper on the windowsill is quite an exciting experience. As for the purpose of such an unusual planting, it can be a big plus for decorating the interior of the room, since a plant densely strewn with bright ripened fruits looks very decorative.
And, of course, it will not be superfluous when eaten.
Advice! You can use hot peppers for salting, pickling and canning, as well as a hot addition to the first (soups) and second dishes (especially meat).
To successfully grow pepper on the windowsill, you must create optimal conditions for its growth and development, because this culture is rather capricious. Therefore, it is required to familiarize yourself in advance with the characteristics and preferences of the plant, as well as with the rules of planting and further care.
By the way! With appropriate care and regular top dressing, indoor pepper is able to fully grow and give a stable crop for 5-10 years, because it is a perennial plant.
To grow hot pepper at home, you must consider the following factors:
- seeds of the appropriate variety from a trusted manufacturer or freshly cut cuttings;
- the choice of the optimal place for plant growth, its lighting, the need for additional illumination;
- selection of landing containers and a suitable substrate;
- features of watering and top dressing;
- knowledge of pepper diseases and pests.
Important! Observing all the rules of care, from one plant you can get 10-20 or more fruits at the same time.
The choice of a variety of bitter for planting in an apartment
Before planting pepper, it is recommended to determine its variety. Having picked up several different types of plants, you can create a colorful garden on the windowsill, which will delight with its bright fruits.
The following varieties of decorative peppers are ideal for growing on the windowsill in the apartment:
- Twinkle. This variety has long been popular because of its compact bush, which reaches a height of 40 cm. It was bred when crossing chili and cayenne pepper. It forms fruits up to 5 cm, which at the base have a diameter of 1-1.2 cm. As they grow, they change their color: green, yellow, red. Fruits ripen within 120 days.
- Aladdin. Ultra early compact variety, bush height reaches 35-40 cm at home. It forms cone-shaped multi-colored fruits, the length of which does not exceed 3 cm. In the process of growth, the shade of the fruit changes: green, purple, red. Ripening occurs within 105 days.
- Garda Fireworks. One of the new indoor varieties. It forms compact bushes with a height of 30 cm. The length of the pods is 5 cm. The peculiarity of pepper is that the fruits stick out with their tips up. As they ripen, they change their color, so the plant can simultaneously have fruits of green, lilac, orange and red. Pods ripen within 115 days.
- Explosive Amber. The variety is unusual in that the foliage of the plant has a dark purple color. Forms cone-shaped small fruits 2.5 cm long. As they grow, the shade of the fruit changes: purple, pink, scarlet. The bush forms a compact, 30 cm high. The variety is considered to be ripening, fruit ripening occurs after 115 days.
Also, for growing at home, such varieties of bitter pepper are suitable as Black Prince, Five-color, Jellyfish, Ornament, Orange Round, Phoenix, Fakir, Beak of the Falcon, Queen of Spades, Salute.
Depending on individual preferences, one or several varieties can be selected at the same time.
As a rule, the most popular varieties for growing on the windowsill are pepper Twinkle and Chile.
Important! You can’t use seeds from a pod purchased in a store for growing pepper on a windowsill, since it is an industrial variety and requires completely different conditions.
How to grow indoor pepper in a pot?
For growing follow the sequence of rules.:
- Seeds are taken, they are disinfected and containers for planting.
- Acquire soil or do it yourself.
- To obtain a good result, temperature and humidity conditions are maintained.
Seeds are bought at a store or harvested on their own with ripe peppers. Before sowing the seeds are calibrated:
- Dip in a solution of water and sodium chloride, mix and leave for a while.
- Weak seeds will remain on the surface. They must be removed.
- Large seeds are treated with potassium permanganate, and then with trace elements, dropping bags of seeds into the solution. Without washing, the seeds are dried.
reference! Wood ash is also used for nutrition, it contains about 30 different elements. Ash is added to the water and the seeds are kept in solution for 3 hours.
Pepper likes neutral in composition. The substrate is bought in a store or mixed at home. To prepare the soil, you need turf land, humus leaves and sand in equal quantities.
The soil must pass air and have a loose consistency. For nutrition, add a little humus or sawdust.
Gardeners advise adding agroperlite or vermiculite, which interfere with soil compaction and retain moisture.
Capacity for landing
For primary seeding, 200-300 ml containers are selected. Undeveloped roots will quickly oxidize if planted immediately in a large pot. In addition, overgrown roots will reduce flowering. There must be a hole at the bottom to collect excess waterand put a tray under the pot. Capacity for growing should be a capacity of approximately 2-3 liters.
When and how to plant?
Seeding time depends on the variety:
- Spring ripening seeds begin to be planted in November and late December.
- Summer plants - from April to May.
- Those that ripen in the fall - from mid-summer to late August.
- Preparing pots for sowing, with a capacity of approximately 0.2 liters. At the bottom of the tank drainage is laid out - 2-3 cm of sand or expanded clay.
- The earth is falling asleep. It is better to purchase the substrate in the store, so there will be more confidence that it is not infected with anything.
- First, the seeds are soaked for several hours. To do this, use a solution of potassium humate.
- After soaking, the seeds are placed in the ground, sprinkled with soil and compacted.
- Containers or containers are covered with a transparent film to create the effect of a greenhouse. The temperature must be maintained within 23-25 ° C.
- After 1-2 weeks, the first shoots are formed, and the shelter is removed.
- The temperature must be lowered to 16-18 ° C in 5 days.
- Periodically, the soil is moistened with settled water.
- After the appearance of 5-6 matured leaves, the plant is transplanted into a separate container.
Mass planting for decorative pepper is not used, each pepper should have a separate pot.
Rules for landing Chile on the windowsill
This vegetable can be grown from young seedlings or seeds. In the second case, there are more chances to get a rich harvest, the taste that was originally planned. It is important to choose the right soil and capacity for planting Chile, follow the rules of care, and provide the plant with a suitable microclimate.
You can sow pepper seeds year-round. Experienced gardeners claim that the most fruitful is spring sowing (early or mid-March). Harvest rich, and pepper evenly sharp and burning. The planting period is determined individually, taking into account the characteristics of a particular variety.
There are such varieties:
- Early ripe varieties planted in mid-February, bear fruit in late May - June. Early varieties include Ogonyok, Medusa, Aladdin, Tabasco.
- Mid-season land in the beginning - mid-March. These include Holly Fish, Queen of Spades.
- Late grades sown in the second half of March. This is Confetti, Bell, Salute, Variegated Troll.
Traditionally, on the windowsill is grown Spark, Tabasco and Bellflower. Other varieties are less in demand at home.
Vegetable excellent fruiting in greenhouse conditions and on open ground. Under favorable conditions, the crop is rich, one-to-one pods, attractive in appearance. Valuable recommendations:
- Maintain the optimum temperature in winter - 18 degrees, in the summer - 20-25 degrees.
- Grow shrubs in the light, but avoid exposure to ultraviolet radiation, otherwise its productivity decreases.
- Avoid drafts; when airing, temporarily move the pot to a quiet, calm place.
I prepare the seed for the "home garden" in the same way as for the garden:
- I carry out calibration - I reject small, damaged seeds. I check them for hollowness - I dilute a weak saline solution, dip the seeds into it, gently stir them with a spoon. Those that have surfaced are not suitable for sowing. I wash the rest under running water, dry it.
- I dilute slightly pink (2%) manganese solution. Disinfect seeds in it for 20-30 minutes, rinse and dry again. Do not ignore this simple procedure - it will save your landings from infectious diseases.
- Soak seed in growth stimulants. The dosage for Epin is 2 drops per 100 ml of water. Dosage for "Zircon" - 1 drop per 300 ml of water.
- I put the seeds in a damp cloth or napkin. I put the package in a plastic bag, I fasten it tightly - so that the fabric does not dry out.
- I take the package to a warm and dark place (not lower than 20-25 C), periodically check the humidity of the matter.
Usually, seedlings appear on the 7-14th day - which means that the seeds are ready for planting.
pepper seed preparation
Sowing pepper: instruction
Sowing is simple - we plant peppers on seedlings:
- In the prepared cups, containers, pots, pour a thin layer of drainage - pebbles, expanded clay, gravel or crumb bricks. You can use the peat plates popular today - you will find them in any garden store.
- Withstanding intervals of 2-5 cm, lay seeds on the surface of the earth.
- Sprinkle with a thin layer of substrate and a little crush it with your palms - for tight contact with the seed.
- Spray the plantings with warm water from a spray bottle.
- Cover with glass or wrap with foil, transfer to a warm place (25 C).
Already after 6-8 days, the first shoots already delight me. I remove the film or glass, place the containers on the illuminated windowsill, protected from drafts and temperature changes. The optimum temperature for the development of seedlings is 16-18 C. At first, plants need only moderate "watering" - spraying the soil from the spray gun.
preparation for planting pepper
Tank and soil preparation
A great option for planting Chile - cells from pressed peat. A separate container is provided for each seedling, since the plant needs space. Alternatively used are wooden boxes, plastic containers, disposable tableware, medium-sized flower pots.
A prerequisite is the presence at the bottom of the tank, drainage with a layer of 3-4 cm. Alternatively, choose river sand, expanded clay, charcoal or ground slate. The root system must breathe, and moisture stagnation contributes to its further decay.
The yield indicator depends on the quality of the soil. To prepare the nutrient mixture, mix 2 parts of peat, compost, turf soil, 1 part of vermiculite and sand. Stir, lay on top of the drain, do not tamp.
Selection, preparation and planting of seeds
Before buying, make sure the seeds are suitable for home growing. Industrial varieties are more often used for open areas and greenhouses. On the windowsill, they definitely do not bear fruit.
Buy seeds of well-known producers, do not save on the purchase. After opening the package, carefully examine each seed. They should be large, bright, without suspicious spots and plaque, deformation.Doubtful seeds do not use for sowing, they still will not give a good crop.
Disinfect seeds before planting. To do this, dip them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes. Pull out, dry naturally. To increase the viability of each seed and the chances of germination, put in gauze pre-moistened with water until young sprouts appear.
When healthy seedlings grow up to 10-15 cm in height from the seeds, transplant each into a separate pot. Follow these landing rules:
- At the bottom, lay a drainage layer of 3 cm.
- Sprinkle a small amount of soil on top.
- Run holes 5-7 cm deep.
- Center the plant with its roots in the ground.
- Fall asleep, fix the stalk.
- Pour quality water at room temperature.
- Cover the container with cling film until the first shoots appear.
- The next watering is after 7 days, when the roots go in breadth.
If in the first week the seedlings are heavily flooded with water, the root system begins to decay, the growth of Chile pepper stops. Severe drought also harms - inhibits growth, reduces productivity.
Already by 20-30 days the first real leaves turn green on pepper - this is a “signal" that the sprouts need to be planted in separate containers. For starters, these are small cups of coffee or yogurt (up to 200 ml). Do not forget to make holes on the bottoms with an awl - the roots will breathe through them, excess moisture will drain. The pots are then mounted on pallets.
The pick itself is also uncomplicated:
- A day before transplanting, place drainage on the bottom of each container, pour soil mixture. Spill the ground well with water.
- Make small indentations in each cup.
- Do not forget to water and seedlings 1-2 hours before the procedure.
- Gently pry the sprout with the fork along with the root system in an earthen coma.
- Shorten the main root with nails or scissors by about 1/3 - this stimulates the buildup of lateral roots. Be sure to disinfect your hands, the tool in front of each new plant.
- Place the seedling in the hole so that the root neck is deepened by 0.5 cm.
- Sprinkle with earth, slightly compacting it with your hands.
- Transfer to a bright place, protected from direct rays.
As I already wrote, pepper will need several transplants as it develops - to more free containers. The plant manages to run out of nutrients from a limited amount of land. Its root system also grows - it becomes cramped in the same container. For timely transplants, the productive life span of indoor pepper will be 2 years.
Home Pepper Care
Look after indoor peppers almost like flowers, but there are also their own characteristics: after all, this is a vegetable crop.
Conditions of detention
The best place for pepper is the eastern or western windowsill: there will be plenty of natural light there, backlighting will be needed only in spring or autumn, and for year-round fruiting plants (and these are rare) in winter. Lack of light will be clearly visible by poor growth of branches and weak flowering. The room must be periodically ventilated without drafts.
The optimum daily temperature is 23–25 ° C, a little colder at night. Not only soil moisture, but also air humidity is important: it should be 60–70%. In the case of lower rates, it is necessary to spray the plants with water. In the warm period, it is useful to put pots on the balcony and even take them out to the garden (if any), but when the temperature drops, they are returned to the windowsill.
Bush formation and pollination
Decorative pepper will bear fruit without forming a bush, but by pinching the plants they make them more accurate and slightly increase their productivity. So, the main shoot is often nipped right after the first flower appears on it, which causes the branching of the plant. Then pinch or remove shoots that violate the decorative bush. With long-term cultivation, fertile shoots are cut out.
When forming a bush, you can do almost everything to create a decorative effect.
Despite the self-pollination of pepper, he should help a little in this matter, just slightly shaking the branches with flowers; pollination with a brush may not be necessary.
Watered pepper with settled warm water as needed: the soil in the pots should always be moderately moist. The need for fertilizing the bushes is signaled by a change in the color of the leaves and growth retardation. Purple leaves indicate a lack of phosphorus, light - nitrogen. You do not need to wait for these signals. Peppers are fed every two weeks. At the same time, it is desirable to make nitrogen top dressing extra-root (spraying the leaves), but you can also bring all the nutrients under the root. It is better to alternate organic and mineral compounds.
Perennial pepper care in winter
In winter, most varieties of ornamental peppers rest and prepare for new fruiting, but there are also fruit-bearing ones continuously. In any case, in winter it is possible to lower the air temperature to 18–20 ° C, but it is important to create conditions with sufficient illumination. Plants are moderately watered, the soil is loosened and sometimes fed.
Diseases and Pests
Pests rarely settle on the windowsill: only a spider mite can get into the open window. Unfortunately, its effect can not be noticed immediately, but can be eliminated. Fitoverm is a reliable assistant in this matter. A powdery mealybug, affecting the root system, can also be found in non-sanitized land. It is fought with various fungicides.
It is not difficult to detect a tick, but this only happens in the later stages.
With excessive waterlogging of the soil, pepper can get sick with fungal and other diseases. Most often it affects root rot and late blight. If spots occur on the leaves, the bushes are sprayed with copper-containing preparations. When the leaves wither against the background of normal watering, you can try to transplant the plant into clean soil.
The signs of late blight are familiar to all gardeners
The timing of emergence and first harvest of homemade hot pepper
Hot pepper seeds germinate for a long time, which is why this feature must be considered when planting. Seedlings appear within 14-21 days, subject to all recommendations for their sowing.
The first pepper crop on the windowsill ripens in 105-150 days from the moment the first sprouts appear, depending on the variety selected.
As soon as the pepper turns red (ripened), you should promptly remove the fruits from the bush along with the peduncle. Then, after a while, a flower will appear in the same place, in other words, the plant will continue to bear fruit - to tie new fruits.
What to do with indoor paprika after harvest in the fall, when the leaves begin to fall
Since paprika is a perennial plant, when it begins to turn yellow and leaves fall, and as a rule, this happens in late autumn and early winter (November-December), you will need to cut the pepper, leaving only 8-10 centimeters .
Interesting! From sleeping axillary buds and branches that are at rest, new shoots will begin to develop. The cycle will repeat, by March the plant will bloom, and in May you will receive the first fruits.
If all the recommendations are followed, growing hot peppers on the windowsill will not be particularly difficult. But it must be understood that further care of the plant must meet all its needs, as pepper will grow and bear fruit only with all the required conditions.
Video: detailed instructions (master class) on growing over hot pepper on a windowsill in 2 parts