Weed plant is
Weeds are not only harmful
We are accustomed to attribute to weeds wild plants that populate areas intended for cultivation by us of cultural "representatives". The struggle with these uninvited "guests" continues, as a rule, all season, taking a lot of time and energy. And, it seems, you already know every “opponent in the face”, but no, every season something new appears. And, not surprising, because the number of known weeds only amounts to thousands. At the same time, poisonous and dangerous, there are almost a hundred.
Despite all the efforts and efforts, it is unlikely that weeds can be completely removed, since the ways in which they appear on our sites are different and we cannot always influence them.
The seeds of some weeds are already present in the soil, waiting for optimal conditions for their birth.
Poorly rotted compost introduced into the soil can also be a source of such seeds. They can also get into the soil with poor-quality seed. And their "peddlers" are wind, animals, and we ourselves, bringing seeds on the soles with the soil that got into them.
Everyone knows about the harm caused by weeds. This is a suppression of the growth and development of cultivated plants, the release of harmful substances into the soil, the drawing of moisture and nutrition from the soil necessary for plants, actively forming a green mass, create a shadow for the sprouts that have just appeared.
But the fact that weeds can be useful, they know, probably only agricultural technicians. In their opinion, weeds with powerful roots that go deep into the soil contribute to loosening the soil. Those weeds that draw useful substances located at a considerable depth, where the roots of cultivated plants cannot reach, can subsequently become an excellent fertilizer.
Weed plants clog agricultural crops, fruit and berry plantations, forest belts, meadows, green spaces, roads, streets, drainage and irrigation canals, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and their banks, exclusion lines on power lines, gas and oil pipelines, stadiums, etc. e. Weed plants are distributed throughout the globe. Several thousand species of weeds are known. The damage from weeds is manifold. Weeds drown out cultivated plants, absorbing a large amount of water and nutrients from the soil, releasing harmful substances from the roots into the soil, depriving them of light, etc .; all this reduces the yield, and in some cases leads to the death of crops.
Climbing weeds (field bindweed, highlander bindweed) cause lodging of crops, which complicates harvesting and leads to large crop losses.
High-stemmed and succulent weed plants (thistles, thistles, mari, etc.) clog the working bodies of harvesting machines, reducing their productivity. At the same time, the crop contains juicy parts of weeds, which significantly increases the moisture content of grains and seeds, causing their self-heating, which reduces quality.
Grain mixed with seeds of poisonous weeds (heliotrope pubescent, etc.) can cause poisoning of people and farm animals. In hayfields and pastures, weeds, displacing valuable forage grasses, reduce their yield and nutritional value, poisonous weeds cause poisoning of animals. The primary breeding centers of many pests and diseases of crops often occur on weeds. Weed plants reduce the water throughput of irrigation canals, contribute to their siltation: at construction sites, exclusion bands of oil and gas pipelines increase the fire hazard, etc.
Loss of weed yield in Russia:
- Cereals - 16%
- Sugar Beet - 20%
- Potato - 15%
- Vegetables - 20%
Classification by place of growth
At the place of growth and specialization, weeds are divided into segetal (arable, weed-field), weed plants of natural land, ruderal plants (garbage, wasteland, weeds) and weeds of special areas.
The group of segetal weeds consists of 6 subgroups, representatives of which predominantly clog: winter crops; early spring and vegetable; late spring; perennial herbs; vapors and uncultivated land (deposits, boundaries, field roads, etc.); fruit plantations and parks. Among each of the subgroups there are specialized weed plants that live, as a rule, only in crops of one crop or even a variety, for example, in spring wheat - intoxicating chaff, buckwheat - kyrylyk and highlander bindweed, in peas - hemp, in oats of the Victory variety - special oatmeal shape, etc.
Weed plants of natural lands and special areas include subgroups: hayfields and pasture (poisonous, harmful, unproductive, poorly eaten and inedible), forest, weed plants of places with disturbed natural grass cover, weed plants of watercourses, reservoirs and their banks, special purpose areas (aerodromes , sports fields, etc.). Ruderal weed plants grow in places where garbage is dumped, wastelands, near dwellings, along roads, etc. Some of these weed plants are poisonous (bleached), others are prickly (cobwebs), and others are stinging (nettles). Weed plants of special areas are difficult to detect in crops and distinguish from seed material, because they are similar in size to seeds and contaminated crops in seed size and appearance.
Among weeds, quarantine weeds are also distinguished. Classification by a systematic position is of great importance in organizing the control of weeds by chemical means. Differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants make it possible to destroy dicotyledonous weeds in crops of monocotyledonous crops, monocotyledons - in crops of dicotyledonous ones.
Land weed types depend on the growth of the characteristic, most harmful weed plants that make up the main background of weediness; the main struggle is being waged against them. Associated weeds are also dangerous species, but are found in relatively small numbers; against them provide preventive measures to prevent their reproduction. There are 3 main, or simple, types of infestation - root shoot, rhizome and young and 4 complex types in which the characteristic species of weeds are represented by 2 or 3 groups - root shoot and rhizome, root shoot and young, rhizome-young and root-shoot-rhizome. The type of weed, in addition to the composition of weeds, is also characterized by the degree of weediness: weak (single weeds), medium (up to 1/4 of the grass stand), strong (weeds are about the same amount as cultivated plants), very strong (weeds are clearly predominant) . For each field and site, taking into account the peculiarities of its weediness, a system of weed control is being developed, including agrotechnical (crop rotation, timely tillage, sowing, harvesting) and chemical (application of herbicides) measures, control over the purity of seed material, etc., against quarantine weed plants - quarantine measures.
Types and classification of weeds in the garden
The main biological differences of weeds:
- Life span.
- The method of reproduction.
In terms of life, plants are divided into perennial and perennial. Perennials grow in one place for 4-5 years in a row. When their seeds ripen, the stem and the entire ground part die off, and the underground continues to develop. The structure of the root system distinguishes such perennial weeds:
- rooted - a powerful root in the form of a rod penetrates the soil to a depth of 3 m, is divided, forming new sprouts;
- urolithic root;
Biennial weeds (for example, clover yellow and white, curly thistle) during the first year of life develop a powerful root, from which stems grow in the second year. After fruiting, the plant completely dies. Depending on the conditions, some species can develop both as biennials and as annual wintering.
Different types of annual weeds have the following lifespan:
- ephemera - up to two months, give several generations in 1 season;
- spring early and late sprout in early spring or late spring, stop development simultaneously with cultivated plants, give only 1 seed crop per year;
- winter crops - germinate in late summer or early autumn and next year ripen early and clog the soil.
Annual species are propagated by seeds, and perennial species are propagated by seeds and vegetatively. The reproduction rate of weeds is high. Each can produce tens of thousands of seeds that retain germination, being in the soil for 5 years or more, and during vegetative propagation (shoots, roots, parts of rhizomes, stems, tubers, etc.) they develop even faster than from seeds. Creeping weeds grow strongly, but rhizome and root shoot are considered the most malicious.
According to the method of nutrition, weeds are divided into such groups:
- Non-parasitic. Develop independently.
- Spurious. They do not have chlorophyll grains, leaves, green color and cannot synthesize organic matter. They feed on the plastic substances of green plants, parasitizing on their roots or stems.
- Semi-parasitic. They have chlorophyll in the leaves and can develop on their own, but they feel better when they attach themselves to the roots of another plant and use its nutrients.
The most common weeds
On 1 hectare of land may be 50 million seeds of various weeds. Among them are the following:
- decorative (bindweed, wood louse, field violet);
- edible (whelping, quinoa, forest buzzard);
- Poisonous and dangerous for animals and humans (cow parsnip, common pikulnik);
- melliferous plants (meadow goat-breeder, thistle).
Malicious Canadian small weeds are grown as a good esteronos - it contains limonene. Weeds in the garden can attract beneficial insects (clover, red dandelion) and repel pests (thistle, ivy), serve as green fertilizer (alfalfa, nettle), and improve the quality of compost (comfrey, dandelion). But if they grow in the garden next to garden crops, they can not only reduce the yield, but also destroy the crops. The general rule in weed control is that they should not be allowed to bloom.
Each type of garden weed in its own way depresses the neighboring seedlings, therefore, to combat them, it is necessary to know their biological characteristics.
The famous healer - plantain, is a weed in the garden. It settles mainly on paths and near buildings. It seems to be a non-dangerous representative of weed species of grass, he does not like beds, as if he did not interfere, but this is only at first glance. Plantain is a fan of settling on ennobled lawns (which must be properly fertilized and watered), from where it is necessary to drive him mercilessly. Many gardeners know what this perennial looks like: wide, smooth, oval leaves with several veins; fibrous root; in the middle of the bush there is a long spike with seeds.
Methods of struggle
Mechanical removal of plantain with the help of special garden tools; destruction by selective herbicides; prevention of compaction (trampling) of soil and excessive moisture.
The most common biennial species are curly, prickly and drooping. Thistle looks decorative, its nectar attracts many insects useful for the garden. It is difficult to get rid of the thistle because of the abundance of sharp spikes and thorns, especially if it has grown to 1-2 m.
The plant is cut off at the base. If this is done often, the root root is depleted and gradually dries.
The plant is creeping, small in size with many internodes on low stems. It has small leaves and star-shaped flowers. It is characterized by high resistance to cold, it is able to shoot from early spring to late autumn, it is itself pollinated. Over the summer season, several generations of this weed can grow. On moist soil, mokret actively grows through stem branches, which are closely adjacent to the ground. Its viability is amazing, even having lost its root system, a mohawk is able to absorb moisture through the hairs covering its stem for a long time.
Methods of dealing with this enemy of vegetable gardens
Extremely difficult due to its survivability. Preventive measures help: drainage, it is important not to water the soil; in early spring, the first seedlings should be weighed, while the stems should be dug deep into the ground or dried to prevent them from germinating again. Mulching the aisles can prevent the appearance of biting midges.
As an option for weed control: planting vegetables in high beds. In extreme cases, you can use herbicides, it is better to use them at the end of the season so that useful plants do not suffer.
Outwardly, the weed is similar to wormwood and, under favorable conditions, can grow up to 2.5 meters in height. Ambrosia causes the greatest harm to field crops; it can “tighten” orchards, vegetable gardens, abandoned plots, pastures and vineyards. Most often it can be seen along the roadsides, as well as on the banks of rivers and lakes. It is important to remember that in people prone to allergies, ragweed pollen can provoke an attack, and if given to cows and goats, it can ruin the taste of milk. It can be destroyed by deep processing of the soil and removing shoots.
A longtime acquaintance of all lovers of earthworks: a perennial shrub with small yellow flowers, large leaves, powerful stems, short, branched roots. It has a bitter smell and extraordinary vitality; it grows on all soils except swamps. Wormwood especially favors gardens rich in lime and nitrogen, propagated by seeds, and is very prolific.
Ways to fight
Cutting the stems of wormwood before flowering, to prevent the dispersion of weed seeds, then removing the roots, followed by digging the land.
Annual It grows well in lowlands on compacted soils. It can be distinguished from the meadow bluegrass used in lawn grasses only in June, when it begins to bloom, forming ugly spots on the lawn, like moss. Spike-shaped inflorescences give a large sowing of seeds, and the fibrous root gradually grows in breadth.
You can get rid of bluegrass as follows: when the grass on the lawn reaches 7-8 cm, mow it to 4-5 cm.
Perennial plant, grows up to a meter in height and has a stalk spreading on the surface of the earth. The reproduction of buttercup occurs through seeds and shoots, it is resistant to harsh conditions, prefers moist and dark areas. It quickly spreads around the site, displacing plants, it is practically impossible to act with chemicals on it. It is most effective to weed out a plant before flowering and seed ripening.
Field Bindweed - Destructive Beauty
Often this weed spreading on the ground is called a birch. Its stems reach 180 cm in length and are able to grow rapidly, braiding up to 2 m² of crops. The roots penetrate deep into the earth at 4-5 meters. However, when the bindweed begins to bloom with snow-white or pale pink hornbeams, it pleases the eye. However, it is important to remember that creeping weeds are plants that drain the earth. They instantly draw nutrients from it, as well as moisture. Therefore, it is worth fighting with them at the earliest stages.
To get rid of bindweed, many have to completely dig out its rhizome. Also, experts recommend the use of herbicides.
A medicinal weed plant that can be found in meadows, along roads and on the edges of forests. This is a herbaceous plant with a life cycle of up to 2 years, grows up to a meter in height. The goat-breeder gives roots with a sweetish taste, which contain a large amount of inulin, indispensable in the treatment of diabetes. Means of control - weeding and treatment with chemical solutions containing herbicides.
Kislitsa - useful, but harmful
The plant owes its name to a pleasant sourish aftertaste. The presence of acidic (weed photo attached above) crevice and ascorbic acids makes it a medicine. It is used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, as well as for the restoration of digestion.
You can recognize this weed in the garden by the following signs:
- delicate three- or five-lobed leaves of a light green hue, similar to clover;
- pale pink or yellow flowers, shaped like bells;
- seed boxes scattering seeds over long distances.
Sorrel loves soil in which there is no lime. Therefore, an excellent solution to the problem is the introduction of quicklime before winter. Raw materials are simply scattered on the beds in small quantities. At the same time, after planting crops, the site is mulched. This layer of dried grass inhibits the growth of the most common weeds in the garden, including sour.
Dosage of lime on different types of soil. Sandy loam - 100-150 g / m², loam - 0.5-1 kg / m². This procedure increases the alkalinity of the earth for the next 2 years.
Veronica - Miniature Pansies
A feature of this field plant is an incredible vitality and energy. Its thin and fragile shoots break very easily, which allows them to take root quickly in a new place. It is impossible to completely get rid of these pale blue or cornflower-like placers of flowers in the garden. Although Veronica seduces the weed with its splendor in the photo, it is still necessary to remove them from the garden. To do this, in the spring, a young plant is treated with herbicides. Do this before the flower buds are tied. It is at this moment that it is most vulnerable.
Veronica filament is successfully used in landscape design. It is recommended to plant it on a flowerbed with forget-me-nots, since they bloom at the same time.
The pig cannot be destroyed
This drought-resistant and thermophilic plant calmly tolerates summer heat and even drought. Surprisingly hardy grass grows on any type of soil, but prefers well-lit areas of land. Often it clogs:
- cotton plantings;
- flower beds with perennial herbs.
To understand how to remove it from the garden, you need to consider the botanical features. Looking at the photo of the pig, weed, you can see that the aboveground shoots are rooted with the help of nodes. This happens when young stems grow on the surface, and then begin to grow to the ground. The rhizomes of the plant are thick and with large scaly formations. In the ground they are located horizontally or under a certain slope.
You can remove the porcelain from the garden by deep plowing. After harvesting, the soil is dug up, allowed to dry, and then the filiform roots are carefully selected. In those places where there is a lot of it, they recommend sowing cereal crops.
It has a powerful root system that goes deep into the ground up to 4 meters. The stem can reach 1.5 meters. Weed crowds out all cultivated plants. It grows well on fertile soils and forest edges. The inconvenience in weed control boils down to the fact that when mowing the remaining parts of the stems and roots are able to give hundreds of shoots. Better cut it before flowering, and then dig up the roots.
Best of all, this weed grows on new lawns where there are no plantings. In the fight against dandelions alone herbicides can not get rid of. The roots of the plant go deep enough, so to completely remove them, you need to dig them up. If you do not do it on time, then with the slightest gust of wind, ripened seeds are instantly distributed throughout the site. The leaves are edible, due to the content of vitamins B2 and C, carotene, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, choline, manganese and iron, have medicinal properties.
Wheat grass creeping
The weed is spreading very quickly, delving into the ground by 15-20 centimeters. You can remove it in several ways: dig or deeply weed. If you do not completely remove the roots, then in a few days they will continue to grow. It is used in folk medicine to treat cystitis, inflammation of the prostate gland, liver diseases, cough.
Budra ivy (creeping budra, dog and catnip)
Perennial plant with a creeping root system and strong shoots capable of rooting. Budra grows well in plowed, but not sown fields, in forests and gardens. In large volumes, the plant is toxic. Despite some healing properties (improves metabolism, is used as an antiseptic and for colds) it is a weed and interferes with the growth of garden crops. It can be destroyed by digging out the roots.
If weeds appear, they must be disposed of as soon as possible, i.e. they spoil the appearance of the lawn:
- they do not allow the lawn grass to develop normally, because they have a more powerful root system and draw moisture and nutrients;
- contribute to the appearance of pests, diseases and degeneration of the lawn;
- multiply rapidly - by seeds and when mowing.
It is difficult to get rid of weeds, especially with low creeping rosette plants, because their roots are intertwined with the roots of the grass and form a dense turf layer. The danger of infection of the lawn is great in the first 2 years of his life. Later, when a dense grass stand is formed, it will become much harder for incoming seeds to cling to the soil.
To get a beautiful lawn, Lontrel herbicide is used, and on the lawns sown with cereals, the combined preparation Propolol is used, for 3-4 weeks they provide the death of more than 100 species of weeds, including malicious ones - a shepherd’s bag, yellow thistle, field yarrow.
Weeds that are used in folk medicine for treatment
Many weeds are used in folk medicine. Of the above, the following are considered medicinal:
- wheat grass - due to the presence of silicic acid, it is used in the treatment of bronchi, rheumatism, gout and to improve metabolism;
- thistle - heals the liver and enhances sexual activity;
- plantain - heals wounds without suppuration;
- clover - helps to resolve the seals in mastopathy.
The medicinal properties are possessed by the ivy budra, burdock, dandelion and dozens of other weeds.
The low perennial grass with pointed leaves and blue flowers finds its application in cooking. Cornflower is used as a safe natural dye in the preparation of creams, soufflés and homemade wines.
It also has medicinal properties and can serve as a diuretic and painkiller. Infusions of cornflowers can handle cuts and boils, ulcers and inflammation, this will speed healing.
Spring young nettles have a lot of useful properties, it contains a huge amount of vitamins C and A. Medicines from young nettles have a beneficial effect on digestion and the metabolic system, help preserve youthful skin and help eliminate inflammatory processes.
Nettle is also used in cooking, it is added to soups and omelets, salads and meat dishes. A healthy weed improves the palatability and valuable properties of food.
Perennial horsetail with long thin stems up to 60 cm in height is a very effective antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Dried weed can be brewed and drunk with inflammation of the bladder and joint ailments, with circulatory disorders. It is useful to take baths with the addition of horsetail decoction, they improve the condition with exacerbations of rheumatism and arthritis.
Mechanical removal (depletion)
Pulling out weeds manually or with special tools, regularly cutting them under the root, destroying the stems until flowering. The method is the most time-consuming, because this procedure must be carried out often and very carefully. The method takes a lot of effort and time, but it has been tested for decades and is the safest for cultivated plants.
Biological method (mulching)
Darkening of the soil with any material that does not transmit light. Lack of lighting inhibits plant growth, leading to the death of the root system of weeds. For this purpose, carefully dried compost, tree bark, sawdust or a special mulching fiber is suitable. The method is not too laborious, but it will not work immediately with it; at least two seasons will be required for the complete destruction of weeds.
Chemical method (herbicide treatment)
The fastest way to get rid of weeds in the garden is to spray them with chemicals (like Roundup), which we purchase in the respective stores. In advanced cases, this is the only way to completely destroy harmful plants. When choosing this method, it is important to remember that chemicals are highly toxic and can harm beneficial plants. It is recommended to use herbicides outside the garden or at the end of the summer season, after harvesting.
Weeds dry out, deplete the earth, some of their species release toxic substances (phytoncides) into the soil, grow everywhere, there is no universal method of dealing with them. Only the integrated use of all methods of protection will help rid gardens and summer cottages of green "invaders." Let the opposition of gardeners against weed pests require special efforts, the result will justify them ironically, if not to be lazy and fight weeds in time.
Why weeds are good
Among the weeds - not all pests, sometimes, in your garden or in garden beds you can find useful herbs.
Blue cornflower is used as a medicinal raw material. It is often enough included in the composition of herbal preparations used as anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic action. Flowers are used in infusions and teas, as a light diuretic and choleretic agent. Dry inflorescences of plants are sometimes used as a dye in cooking.
Meadow clover is a valuable honey plant. The honey obtained from clover crops belongs to the best varieties and does not sugar for a long time. Vitamin concentrates are obtained from clover leaves. In addition, it is believed that the plant has antiseptic and inflammatory effects, it is also used as a prophylaxis of atherosclerosis.
Young nettle is a real spring gift of nature. The plant contains a huge amount of vitamin C, so nettles during this period are used in the preparation of soups, salads. Decoctions of the plant help improve metabolism.
Horsetail has found application not only in folk, but also in scientific medicine. Infusions of the plant are used as a diuretic for edema, as well as a hemostatic, wound healing and general strengthening agent. Horsetail extract is part of the drug prescribed for urolithiasis. In addition, bathing with this herb will relieve rheumatic pains.
Highlander bird is widely used in various medicinal collections, due to the large content of useful substances in it. Plant preparations are used for inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers. It is used externally for various skin diseases, as well as for the treatment of wounds, ulcers and bruises.
Weed Control Prevention
To deal with weeds is much easier when they are present in the suburban area in small quantities. And for this it is necessary to take measures aimed at preventing their spread.
For example, in order to prevent the appearance of weeds on the lawn, experts advise to adhere to only a few recommendations.
So, in order to avoid the rapid growth of lawn grass, some people cut the lawn very shortly. However, it is better to mow the lawn a little, but at the same time regularly.
The formation of bald spots on the lawn should not be allowed, since they will be immediately occupied with weeds, and for this it should be regularly watered and in a timely manner
feed grass. By the way, the application of fertilizers will also contribute to strengthening the grass cover, which will be much more difficult to displace weeds.
Combing the lawn with a rake will prevent the appearance of creeping and creeping weeds.
If possible, it is best to remove any weeds immediately, not allowing them to take root and give seeds.
Measures to prevent the spread of weeds in the garden are also quite simple.
It is necessary to determine on the site one place where you will take the remnants of the removed, weathered weeds.
In the fall, when digging the earth, do not zealously break up earth clods. Thus, weed roots that will freeze over the winter will remain on the surface. In the spring, digging up the site, you should remove as much as possible all residual roots of weeds.
Flowering plants are good to admire in the forest or in the meadow. But when annual or perennial dicotyledonous or monocotyledonous weed and cereal grasses appear on the site with vegetables, then there is no time for beauty. Being late with their removal can adversely affect the crop.