The genus Peretz (the family of peppers) unites about 1,500 species of herbaceous plants, among which there are vines, shrubs and small trees. These plants have nothing in common (except the name) with vegetable peppers belonging to another genus.
The biological name of the genus and the plant itself “Piper” in translation (Sanskrit) means “long pepper”.
Homeland and places of growth
The vast majority of species of peppers grows in the tropics of both hemispheres, preferring moist soils of rainforests, clearings, mountain slopes. Settling, peppers begin to dominate other vegetation.
Plants of the genus are characterized by diversity in the structure of shoots and leaves. A unifying factor is flowering, accompanied by the formation of spike-shaped inflorescences and the fruit - drupe.
Grassy or lignified. In some species, erect, in others - flexible, creeping or clinging, branching.
Petioles, simple, with well-developed veins. Located alternately or opposite. Their color varies from plain green to colorful. The spots are light or pinkish.
Flowering and fruit
Small flowers of light shades of flowers are collected in inflorescences of ears. Flowering is original, but a little decorative.
The fruit is a berry or drupes, a well-known spice that glorifies the plant.
Betel Pepper or White Pepper
Evergreen liana with meter-long lignified shoots. This species is famous not so much for fruits as for leaves.
Sheet tissue contains pieces of iron that produce a burning, tasting secret. This secret has a powerful tonic effect that has been used by mankind for hundreds of years.
The sheet is folded into an envelope and placed on the cheek or chewed like an ordinary chewing gum, providing yourself with a good mood, a surge of vigor and a fair amount of nonsense.
Long pepper indonesian
Its fruits are incredibly popular in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, North America and are known as Pippali. This aromatic spice is an essential component of traditional spicy mixtures and a remedy for many ailments.
Externally, the plant is a curly bush with elongated leaves having small swelling between the veins
It is a shrub with erect shoots carrying large oval (20 cm / 10 cm) leaves with winged petioles. The upper part of the leaf blade is glossy, dark green, the bottom is reddish.
Cubeb Pepper or Kumkus
Its fruits (drupes) have an elongated and slightly pointed gray testis, which served as the reason for the origin of another name for the plant - Tailed pepper.
Pepper Metisticum (Cava or Pepper intoxicating)
A widely known species, from the roots of which the drink of the same name is obtained, which has a strong calming and tonic effect. The word "kava" can mean both a plant and a drink derived from it.
Drink Cava causes a state close to intoxication: a person becomes talkative, peaceful and calm.
The leaves are large, semicircular, pointed, with a pubescent lower part.
Perennial with thin long (up to 15 m) curly shoots, in the nodes of which there are aerial roots.
The top of the leaf blades is painted in a dark green tone, the lower side is greenish-gray.
An inflorescence is an ear hanging down like earrings. Cultivated for the sake of the fetus.
One of the few species grown indoors as an ampel plant.
It stands out among its relatives with a motley color of glossy heart-shaped foliage:
- pink and whitish spots adorn its top. Pink are located between the veins, whitish - along the veins.
- The lower part of the leaves is light green with reddish spots.
Peppers are quite decorative and often serve as decoration of interiors. It’s easy to grow them. It is important to remember that for this plant is necessary:
- good lighting, and year-round;
- heat (except for the winter period of rest);
- high humidity.
Pepper is a lover of bright diffused light. He will be comfortable on the eastern windows. In the southern, at sunny noon, the plant will have to shadow. In the north there is little light for peppers.
Pepper is a thermophilic plant. The optimal spring-summer temperature is 20-25 ° C. In autumn, its temperature may be slightly lower.
Attention! For Peppers, winter is a period of rest. They need a cool - 18 ° C and good lighting.
Abundant and regular. The regularity of irrigation is determined by the state of the topsoil: it should dry slightly. In autumn, watering is gradually reduced, reducing to moderate to winter. Irrigation water should be soft.
Important! Excessive moisture, as well as overdrying, are equally undesirable.
Peppers need high humidity air. This fact must be considered when acquiring a plant. In rooms with dry air, Pepper will hurt.
Even in humid air, the plant is regularly (at least 2 times a day) sprayed, a vessel with water is placed next to the pot, or the pan is filled with wet expanded clay.
Pepper grows on nutritious soils, quickly consuming their reserve, and therefore needs good nutrition. From the beginning of spring to the fall, once every 2 weeks, they are introduced into the soil with complex mineral fertilizers for decorative and deciduous forms. In the fall, top dressing is gradually stopped.
Young specimens need an annual transplant; adults need only one transplant in 2 years.
Peppers love a loose and nutrient-rich substrate.
- leaf and turf land;
All components are in equal parts.
For planting, it is better to use plastic containers: they do not trap moisture in their walls. There must be drainage at the bottom of the pot.
Observing these simple recommendations, you will get beautiful and healthy plants.
Peppers can be propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Sowing is carried out in a mixture of sheet and turf soil (1: 1), adding sand (0, 5 parts). A container with crops is placed in a warm (24–28 ° С) place and regularly watered.
When the first true leaf appears at the seedlings, a pick is carried out using a more nutritious soil: turf and leaf soil, humus and sand, taken in equal proportions. Between seedlings maintain a distance of 2-3 cm.
As soon as the plants get stronger, they are seated, moving into separate pots (diameter 7 cm).
Care for young specimens consists in watering and dimming (in the event of direct sunlight).
In the future, another transplant will be required - in 9 cm pots. Many species have sprouting shoots, in these cases the support is established.
Cuttings are cut from healthy adult plants - shoots with 1–2 buds. For rooting, use a wiring box filled with a mixture of sheet soil and sand (0.5: 1). Rooting is carried out at temperatures from 24 to 26 ° C. It will happen in 2.5–3 weeks. Young plants are transplanted into separate containers with a diameter of 9 cm.
Propagation by layering
A separate container is filled with sand. Long creeping shoots densely bend to its surface. The plant is placed in a room with warm, moist air. In these conditions, bent shoots will quickly give root. Rooted areas are cut and planted in separate pots.
In spring, during transplanting, overgrown bushes are appropriate to divide. Each part is planted separately.
Diseases and Pests
Peppers are damaged by sucking insects: whiteflies, thrips, aphids, spider mites. Therefore, it is very important during planting and care to carefully inspect the plants, revealing the invasion from the first days.
Methods of combating these pests are traditional: treatment with soap and water, removal of severely affected areas. In case of insufficient measures taken - the use of chemicals.
Excessively humid air, content at temperatures below 16 ° C provoke the development of fungal, and sometimes viral diseases.
Peppers are famous for their leafy decorativeness, being the "highlight" of any collection of indoor plants or greenhouses.